Assessment Instructions


1.     “The concept of sustainable development is an ambiguous creature. It is no surprise that in post-Rio environmental battles, both developing and industrial countries employ the common language of sustainable development which suggests a consensus in values, yet they differ drastically in their approach, method, and aims to implement sustainable development.”

Critically discuss this statement with reference to the Sustainable Development Goals (2015).


2.“Article XX (b) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade acknowledges a relationship between trade and the protection of the environment. However, the interpretation and application of this provision have proved something of a challenge in settling disputes between states.”

How have States sought to defend trade measures undertaken to protect the environment in WTO disputes and with what outcomes? Illustrate your answer with case laws.


3.“Climate change litigation provides a valuable complement to treaty, legislative, and executive action because it fosters needed interaction across levels of government.”

Do you agree? Critically discuss this statement with reference to case laws.


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