Question: Formulate and evaluate a care plan on health promotion for an individual or group


Identify a health issue or issue that can affect health, state that you will design health promotion care plan, and evaluate the care plan.


Identify a health issue- at an individual/ family/community/ national/ global levels and provide brief background of the health issue including who is at risk, risk factors, and how it presents.

Design a health promotion care plan:  Problem– what is the health issue/ problem.

Assessment, assess- how do you assess for the existence of the health issue/ problem.

Goal- what do you hope to achieve

Intervention: how are you going to achieve your goal? (1000 words)

Evaluation: of your care plan. Did you achieve or not achieve your goal. Give reasons for your achievement or non-achievement.  What are alternative assessment, goals, and interventions?


 Summarise what you have done: what is the implication of this experience for your professional and personal development.



Air pollution


Lack of green space

Crime etc

There are link to some of the core concepts of re=addressing inequality relating to the social determinant of health, locally, nationally and globally.

Short Description  ( introduction to module)

This module introduces public health concepts and contemporary public health issues, the principles of which can then be applied at an individual and population level and within a local, national and global context. This module of study is aligned to the NMC Standard Platform 2, Promoting health and preventing ill health (NMC 2018, Future nurse: Standards of proficiency for registered nurses).


  1. Increase the understanding of the role of the nurse and skills necessary to promote physical and mental health and wellbeing, and prevent ill health.
  2. Understand the social determinants of health and the impact of inequalities on individuals, families and communities, and how nurses can contribute to the reduction of health inequalities.
  3. Students will be able to compare and contrast different health promotion approaches and theories that support behaviour change at an individual and population level.

Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding:

Examine the contribution of social influences, health literacy, individual circumstances, behaviours and lifestyle choices to health and well being.

Intellectual Skills:

Apply knowledge of the aims and principles of health promotion, health protection and health improvement and consider and evaluate public health priorities, strategies and methods used with individuals, groups and communities.

Practical Skills:

Articulate and demonstrate the use of up-to-date approaches to behaviour change which enable people to use their strengths and expertise, and make informed choices when managing their own health and making lifestyle adjustments.

Identify, retrieve and analyse credible health data at a local, national and global level, and discuss how this may be used to improve health and prevent ill health.

Transferable Skills:

Support and enable individuals, families and communities to apply life enhancing activities.


The registered nurse will be able to understand and apply the aims and principles of health promotion, protection and improvement and the prevention of ill health when engaging with people.

The registered nurse will understand the factors that may lead to inequalities in health outcomes and how the nurse can contribute to the reduction of health inequalities.

Indicative content

 Factors influencing health outcomes and the social determinants of health.

Learning outcomes

To understand the purposes of community health care

To discuss

Why community care

Why being connected with other people matter

To understand the components of family community

Community care

Healthcare in community the and homes or places where patients live

Helps to improve patient satisfaction and well being

-care in comforting own surrounding

Improve the quality of life those with long term conditions

-Promotes and support long -term self-care and independence.

Ease the burden on primary care and secondary

Reduce health inequalities within a local area or community



  • Community-centred approaches

Voice and Voice control control – people get greater say in their lives and health

Equity – leading to reduction in avoidable inequalities

Social connectedness – leading to to healthier more cohesive healthier more cohesive communities

  • Confident and connected

Recognise & mobilise community / individual

Promote community health and wellbeing

Promote equity in health and healthcare

Help increase individual’s control over their health and lives

Use participatory methods to facilitate active public involvement

Community centred –approach

Use of community assert s-skills knowledge and social networks

Community engagement and outreach – behaviour change interventions

Support from peers who share similar life experiences

Break social isolation and loneliness- associated with higher risk of mortality and morbidity

  • People can recover from loneliness
  • Well-being is key for functioning and flourishing society
  • Community life, social connections, and active citizenship are all factors , that enhance well-being


Social gradient/ social capital

High levels of social capital can buffer some of the effects of stress

Deprivation and inequalities ‘erode’ the resources needed for good mental inequalities for good mental health.

People living in deprived areas of– about 15%have a  lack of social support about 1/4th  (26%) have some lack


Communities’ health asserts

The skills, knowledge, social competence and commitment of individual community members.

Friendships – intergenerational solidarity, community cohesion and neighbourliness within a community.

Local groups and community voluntary associations – formal organisations s to informal, mutual aid networks such as babysitting circles to informal

Physical environmental and economic resources within a community

Assets brought by external agencies, public private and third sector



Power and participation to health

INDIVIDUAL empowerment –a sense of control over their lives and health

Developing personal skills, self-confidence, coping mechanisms

  • Adopting positive health behaviours and self-care – self-efficacy, self-esteem, confidence to change problem solving skills

Community empowerment: people working collectively to shape that influence their lives and health.

  • Involves power relations
  • Leading to a more equitable society

Participation methods

  • Address power imbalances due to inequalities
  • Enables disadvantaged and marginalised groups to gain g more control



Level 1

Supporting local initiatives,. Community development, deciding together, consultation and information

Typical process

Community development, Partnership development, consensus building, communication and feedback and presentation and promotion


We can help you achieve what you want within guideline

We want to carry out joint decision together

These are the options what do you think

Here is what we are going to do

(Adapted from: Wilcox, The guide to effective participation.1994:15



  • Volunteering is a form of participation
  • An important part of the social fabric
  • Occurs most of the wider determinants of health
  • About 49% of English volunteer
  • About 3 million in health & social care

Associated with w better health, lower mortality, functioning, life satisfaction and decrease in depression



Taking part in community life, democratic and political processes

Community leadership and representation Long tradition of PH involvement in citizen activism

Access to contraception

Disability rights

Other examples?


Volunteer and peer roles

Bridging roles

Community members being connectors

Signposting to services and information

Supporting people to improve their health and wellbeing

Peer based interventions:

Recruits and train people of same or similar characteristics as the target

Aim to reduce communication barriers, improving support mechanisms and social connections

Volunteer health roles

Focus on reducing health inequalities

Common health improvement models

Walking g for health Walking


Environment health volunteering projects



Emphasis on community self-help co production, supporting personalisation of health and care.

For planning and regulatory powers to create safe, sustainable environments environments  Think Think Think Local Act Personal (TLAP) partnership Local Act Personal (TLAP) partnership Local Act Personal (TLAP) partnership -a group of over 30 national that are committed to real change in adult social care.



Strengthening communities – building community capacity to take action on community health and the social determinants of health.

Volunteer/peer role enhancing individuals’ capabilities to advice, inform, , support or organise activities for community and wellbeing.

Collaborations and partnership with communities to and/or deliver services and programmes

Access to community resources connecting people, information and social activities



Community development: addressing imbalances in power and bring about change founded on social justice, equality inclusion

Asset-based approaches:: identifying inventory of for planning and developing  social action health

Social network approaches: strengthening community and social support between people by collective or community organising activities.



Programme that aim to address health inequalities by involving people from disadvantaged groups or those at risk of poor health groups.

Make up an important part of the wider public health workforce in England.

Support individuals to make positive changes improve their lives and health

offer ‘support from next door’ rather than professional ‘advice

Focusing on common approach to behaviour commoN

Work in primary health care, settings community, specialised services like ex-Offenders

‘Altogether ‘Better’ is an example based on empowerment principles, recruiting over 20,000 to date

Volunteers who draw on their own local knowledge and life experience activities and also establish groups to meet local needs. Social activities and also establish groups to meet local needs.



Borough of Barrett, Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington, Chelsea, Westminster. Merton, Wansworth, Harrow, Hertfordshire.

Walk in and major injury centres/ District nurses/ health visiting /school nurses/ child and family services/ Rehabilitation and palliative care services/ continuing care services/ specialist services/ offenders health services

3000 health professionals and  staff



Nursing contribution to PH

MARY Seacole British1881): British -Jamaican business woman, nurse, set woman, nurse, set woman, nurse, set woman, nurse, set woman, nurse, set woman, nurse, , set-up the “British Hotel” behind lines during Crimean War, comfort c quarters for convalescent sick officers, aided for wounded servicemen on wounded servicemen on wounded servicemen on battlefield

Florence Nightingale (1820 English social reformer founder of modern nursing, manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, organised care for wounded care for wounded care for wounded soldiers

RCN believes that RCN believes that RCN believes that RCN believes that RCN believes that RCN believes that RCN believes that RCN believes that

Nursing should Nursing should be at the heart of minimising impact illness, promoting health helping people to function at home, work. Leisure.

Improving public health should be seen as part of all nursing and midwifery roles. public health should be seen as part of all nursing and midwifery roles. public health should be seen as part of all nursing and midwifery roles.public health should be seen as part of all nursing and midwifery roles.


Nursing and PH


Promoting, preventing and protecting

Some generic aim

Enough food and water

No epidemics

Well informed population regarding personal health

Healthy life style choices

Immunised children

Clean air

Free from pollution

No /little class disparity in terms of disease and life expectancy



Lower smoking rate

Less sugar, calories and salt in the food eaten everyday

Less pollution in the air that we breathe

Measurable improvement in mental health

Improve mental health literacy

Reduced inequalities in infant mortality

Reduced gap in smoke rate

Fewer cases of poor health among vulnerable people

Lecture 3:

 Health Protection, Detection, Immunisation and Screening

It time to focus on health prevention and promotion ( Derek Yach)

Registered nurses make an important contribution to the promotion of ill health. They do this by health, protection and the prevention of ill health. They do this by empowering people, communities and populations to exercise choice, take control of their own health decisions and behaviours.

Understand and apply the aims principles of health promotion, protection and improvement and the prevention of ill when engaging with people

HEALTH- physical, emotional, intellectual, sexual, social and spirit


Primary prevention

Secondary prevention

Tertiary prevention


This is about policy to protect health and outlining priorities. They look at financing and delivery of healthcare.


Early detection allows effective and efficient preventive measures to be started in order to avoid or minimise impact on health

In the UK, there is a list of 32 notifiable diseases (Health Protection (Health Protection Regulations, 2010); this includes acute encephalitis, infectious hepatitis, Regulations, 2010); anthrax, cholera, food poisoning, measles, mumps, rubella; all of which anthrax, cholera, food poisoning, measles, mumps, rubella;, all of which have to be notified a proper officer within 3 days (or 24 hours for urgent a proper officer within 3 days (or 24 hours for urgent


Collating this information allows accurate monitoring of a disease and Collating this information allows accurate monitoring of a disease and can provide early warning of potential outbreaks.


National screening programmes:

. NHS antenatal screening

  • NHS new-born screening.
  • School -entry health check.
  • Cancer screening programmes (breast, cervical and bowel
  • Diabetic retinopathy screening.
  • The health checks (vascular risk).
  • Over 65 screening.
  • AAA screening.
  • National Chlamydia Screening Programme..
  • New GP Patient screening.
  • Occupational Health Screening.



Vaccination is a miracle of modern medicine. In the past 50 years, it’s saved more “worldwide lives than any other medical product or procedure.” than any other medical product or procedure (NHS 2016)


  • Vaccines contain a small part of the bacterium or virus that causes disease, tiny amounts of the chemicals that the bacterium produces. Vaccines work by causing body’s immune system to make chemicals that the bacterium produces. If the child comes into contact with antibodies (substances that fight off infection and comes into contact with antibodies (substances that fight off infection and disease) the antibodies will recognise it and be ready to protect him or her from infection, will recognise it and be ready to protect him or her infection, the antibodies will recognise it, it.” NHS (2009)


Principle around since ancient Chinese.

Small pox vaccination successfully attempted by Jenner in by Jenner in the 18 th Century

Main Use

Generally  used for diseases which are both serious and relatively common.


Information source.

  • Clarification and explanation.
  • Encouragement.


  • Advocacy.

Lecture 4 Learning outcomes

  • Understand the meaning of health and wellness
  • Know the concept of health promotion in diverse contexts •

Identify and discuss approaches to health

Health& wellness

“A state of complete physical, mental and social well -being and not merely the absence t of disease (WHO, 1946)


Sense of living that is consistent with balanced growth in the physical, spiritual, emotional, intellectual, social, and psychological dimensions of human existence

Positive experience


Interactive I



Health promotion

“… the process of enabling people and groups) to increase control over and to improve  their health (WHO, 1988) health (WHO, 1988) health


Helping people / groups to live healthy lives

Increasing knowledge and awareness of healthy choices

Enabling action to improve their health

Ensuring situations for healthy choices

What approaches can help achieve these goals at individual, community, national and population levels?

You may have considered health education; developing personal skills, strengthening community  action, reorienting health services, building healthy public policy, creating policy, creating supportive environments


1986 – 1st International Conference on Health Promotion in Ottawa Ottawa

“Health for All” by 2000 and beyond

Strategies – advocate for factors which encourage health, enable people to advocate for factors which encourage health, enable people to advocate for factors which encourage health, mediate through collaboration to achieve health equity,

2016 – 9th global conference in Shanghai

Sustainable Development goals Health for all and all for health’ health’


Global health promotion

Good governance: policies for sustainable system which promote health and wellbeing for all

Health l literacy: increasing individuals literacy: and communities capacities to make appropriate health decisions.

Healthy cities: promoting wellbeing and multi -disciplinary approaches to health within everyday urban life urban life urban

Health promoting schools: strengthening the capacity of schools to be healthy settings for living, learning and working

Social mobilisation: engaging mobilisation: engaging and galvanising people at all levels, , to act for good health and  well-being and gives Community.


Medical or preventive

Behaviour change

Educational empowerment

Social change


Aims to reduce morbidity and premature mortality

Target whole population or high risk group

Interventions include;

Primary intervention of onset of disease

Secondary intervention of progression of disease

Tertiary prevention of reducing further disability or suffering in person perceive health

Identify health conditions and discuss primary, secondary and tertiary preventive health promotion approaches.

Behaviour changes approach


Health is the property of individual

Persons can make real improvement to their health by choice of life

Responsibility for self

Attitude change is essential

Individuals adopt healthy behaviour which improve health

Identify health behaviour and discuss behaviour strategies for them.

Educational approach

Enabling people to make inform choices about their health behaviour

Providing knowledge and information

Developing the necessary skills

Information NOT persuasion or motivation

Outcome is reliance on person’s self-choice

Identify health behaviour and discuss educational approaches for them.

Empowerment approach

Support people to;

Identify their own concerns

Gain the skills and confidence necessary to act on their concerns

Set their own agenda and increase control over their own life

Recognised their powerlessness

Feel strongly about their situation to want to change it

Feel capable of changing the situation

How can nurses empower persons/communities to change health?

Social change approach

Intends to;

Changing society not individual

Making healthy choices available and accessible

Targeting groups and populations

Using methods such as public information about the need for change, raising awareness, policy planning, negotiating, implementation and evaluation

Identify health condition and discuss social change approach for them.


Knowledge and skills for promoting behaviour change

Normal and abnormal pathophysiology

Epidemiology of disease

Risk factors

Protective health behaviours

Theories of health behaviour change

Ecological approaches to behaviour change

Counselling skills

Local and community resources

History taking

Rapport building

Ability to assess readiness to change

Health education

Draws from the biological, environmental, psychological, and medical sciences to promote health and prevent t disease, disability disease, disability disease, disability and premature death

Intends to change certain behaviour in a strategic, systematic and targeted manner.

Supported evidence


Can be adapted Can to age, gender, education, health problem, social education, health problem, social

Encourages personal investment of personal investment of individual

Respects environment of an individual

It is part of an overall health promotion process that is trying to impact individual or community change

Population health

Is the health outcome of a group/ individuals?

It aims to improve the health of an entire population

Understand a clear health problem and set clear goals for improvement

Focus on all determinant of health not just healthcare

Generate share accountability for improving population health

Empower people or communities and develop their capabilities

Embed health equity as a core part of a population health strategy.

Population health education

What are the strategies for health education of:





Lecture 5:  Social Determinants of Health

Social Determinants of Health

Learning Outcomes:-

  • Definition of Social Determinants of Health (SDH)
  • An overview of health and development governances towards social determinants of health (SDH)
  • Understand how health& social sectors reorient towards


  • SDH-focused monitoring actions
  • Students to describe at least 3 factors that make public health initiatives work relating to SDH policies

The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) are the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live and age and the wider set of forces and systems that shape our

Conditions of daily life

  • These focuses that shapes and to an extends map the way people will live, are forces and systems which includes economic policies, agendas, social norms, social policies and political systems
  • The purpose of SDH is to systematically address the inequalities of SDH


Social Determinants of Health



7Io 9 minutes


Social Determinants of Health

People’s health is determined primarily by a range of social, economic and environmental factors. Social prescribing seeks to address people’s needs in a holistic way. It also aims to support individuals to take greater control of their own health.

Tackling Health Inequalities

Marmot Review (2010)

The ‘Marmot Review’ proposed an evidence-based strategy to address inequalities in the health, distribution of health, and social and economic conditions across.


6 Recommendations:

Give every child the best start in life;

Provide education and lifelong learning;

Provide employment and working conditions;

Define and provide a minimum income for healthy living;

Provide safe and sustainable housing and communities;

Use a ‘social determinants’ approach to disease prevention

Life Course Perspective

  • Healthy infants, children and young adults
  • Healthy adults and older adults
  • Healthcare Public Health
  • Healthy people in healthy places
  • Health in all policies


The seven social classes

  1. Elite – This is the wealthiest and most privileged group in the UK. They went to private school and elite universities and enjoy high cultural activities such as listening to classical music and going to the opera.
  2. Established middle class – This is the most gregarious and the second wealthiest of all the class groups. They work in traditional professions and socialise with a wide variety of people, and take part in a wide variety of cultural activities.
  3. Technical middle class – This is a small, distinctive and prosperous new class group. They prefer emerging culture, such as social media, and mix mainly among themselves. They work in science and tech and come from middle-class backgrounds.
  4. New affluent workers – These people are economically secure, without being well-off. This class group is sociable, has lots of cultural interests and sits in the middle of all the groups in terms of wealth. They’re likely to come from working class backgrounds.
  5. Traditional working class – This group has the oldest average age, and they’re likely to own their own home. They mix among themselves and don’t enjoy emerging culture. Jobs in this group include lorry drivers, cleaners and electricians.
  6. Emergent service workers – These young people have high social and cultural capital – so they know people from all different walks of life, and enjoy a wide range of cultural activities – but are not financially secure.
  7. Precariat – The poorest and most deprived social group. They tend to mix socially with people like them and don’t have a broad range of cultural interests. More than 80% rent their home.



  • The Social Determinants of Health aims to proposed an evidence-based strategy to address inequalities in the health, distribution of health, and social and economic conditions across England
  • Public health initiatives is a multi-disciplinary public health approach with user involvement and collaborative working n is a major themes in all government policy
  • Social prescribing seeks to address people’s needs in a holistic way, to support individuals to take greater control of their own health



1.5 million Patient contact every year

Lecture 6: What is Epidemiology?

Study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or related states or events, including disease, and using this information to control diseases events and other health problems. (WHO, 2018)

  • Study of the patterns, causes and effects of health disease conditions in defined populations.

Encompasses the sick, well, exposed, non-exposed..

Target population, group not individual, comparison with similarities and differences

Planning, evaluation, prevent illness, management of health


Informs policy decision evidence- based practice

Helps nurses understand:

Aetiology or the cause of disease and the risk factors

Natural history and prognosis of diseases or health diseases or health conditions.

Extent of disease in the population

Predisposing characteristics for ill –health

Existing and new preventive and therapeutic measures

Best strategies for ill-health health

Best treatment and management of health conditions

Routine registration and notification birth, death, marriage Cancer registry

Communicable / non Communicable / diseases

International Classification of disease

NHS statistics, length waiting length of bed stay

Service uptake and utilisation

Measures of deprivation

Health and disease scales

Quality of life surveys

General household survey

Social information unemployment, Smoking and food, Breastfeeding

Vaccination and Teenage (under 18) conceptions sexual health data

Termination, smoking cessation, hospital activity, prescribing, food bank useage

Epidemiological terms

Risk factor: increase likelihood

Incidence: number of new cases disease or health condition

Prevalence: numbers of cases disease or health condition:

Population: defined group of people, e.g., people with diabetes Population:

Years of Life Lost (YLL): potential life lost due to premature death

Years Lived with Disability (YLD): burden years) of disease.

Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY): years lost due to ill health

Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY): years lived in perfect health

Burden of Disease (GBD): mortality and morbidity from major diseases


Crude Mortality Rate (CMR) per 1000 – ratio of the number deaths during the year to average population in that year – UK 9.2 Scotland 10.7, , England 9

Age Standardised Mortality Rate (ASMR) (per 100000)) – average of the age-specific mortality rates specific mortality rates specific mortality rates specific mortality rates specific mortality rates specific–& Wales 1124 (Males), 837 females)

Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) per 1000)) – number of neonatal (0 number of neonatal l (0 -27 days) deaths per live birth– England &wales 2.8

Infant mortality rate (IMR) (per 1000)– number of deaths under one year age occurring among live births  – England & Wales 4

(Office for National Statistics “ “ ONS”, 2019)



363000 NEW CASES EVERY YEAR (<990) (2014- 2016)

Female 178,000

Male 185,000

New diagnoses every two minutes

Breast, prostrate, lung, bowel cancer accounted for 53% of cases.

365 of diagnoses in people age 75 or over

Highest incidence of all cancers in people age 85-89



164,000 CANCER DAETH EVERY YEAR or 450 daily- 28% of all daeth

Male 82,200 cancer death

Female 77, 900

Cancer death in every four minutes

Lung, bowel, breast and prostate cancer for 45% of cancer deaths 1/5th from lung cancer

53% of all cancer death are in people age 75% or over

Mortality rates for all cancer death is highest for people age 90+



50% of people survive their disease for 10+ (2010-2011)

Higher survival in women than in men

Survival is improving

Survival is higher in people aged under 40 years old

Higher middle age survival for breast, bowel and prostate,


1 in 2 people born after 1960 will be diagnosed with some form of cancer during their life time

Risk of cancer depends on many factors, including age, genetics, and exposure to risk factors.

4 in 10 cases can be prevented or 135,000 every year:  112000 ( England), 13000 (Scotland), 7200 (Wales)  3500 ( Northern Ireland)  Smoking is the largest cause of cancer.

 Measuring health outcomes and epidemiology.

 The rise of non-communicable diseases and health behaviours.

 Health promotion approaches.

 Health protection, immunisation and screening.

 Approaches to behaviour change.

 Examples of health promotion in nursing practice in workplaces, prisons, schools, emergency care, mental health.

 Supporting self-management and patient involvement.

 Community capacity building and asset mapping.

 Public health policy.

 Aging population.

 Mental health in public health.

 Nutrition and malnutrition.

Assessment method

Summative assessment: Formulate and evaluate how a care plan for an individual patient could promote health. 3000 Words.

100% Weighting

Indicative Sources

Core materials:

 Baggot, R. (2011) Public Health Policy and Politics. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

 Laverack, G. (2019) Power, Empowerment and professional practice. 4th ed. London: Red Globe Press.

 Marmot, M., Allen, J. and Goldblatt, P. (2010) Fair society, healthy lives: strategic review of health inequalities in England post 2010. London: The Marmot Review. Available from:

 Naidoo, J. and Wills, J. (2016) Foundations for Health Promotion. 4th ed. London, Elsevier.

 Wills, J. (2014) Fundamentals of Health Promotion for Nurses. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Optional reading:

 Bambra, C., Smith, K. and Kennedy, L. (2015) Politics and Health, in Naidoo, J. and Wills, J. (eds.) (2015) Health Studies: an introduction. 3rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 265-292.

 Department of Health (2010) Health Lives, Healthy People: our strategy for public health England. London, Department of Health. Available from:

 Department of Health. (2018) Prevention is better than cure: Our vision to help you live well for longer. London. Department of Health. Available from:

 Harvey, J. and Taylor, V. (eds.) (2013) Measuring Health and Wellbeing. Los Angeles, California: Sage.

 Laverack, G. (2014) A-Z of health promotion. Basingstoke: Palgrave

 Local Government Association. (2013) Changing Behaviours in Public Health: To Nudge or Shove. Available from:

 Nutbeam, D. (2000) Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promotion International, 15(3), 1, pp. 259–267.

 Marmot Review Team Marmot (2020) Health Equity in England: The marmot review 10 years on. London: UCL Health Equity Unit.

 Pickett, K. and Wilkinson, R. (2010) The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. New York: Bloomsbury Press.

 Scriven, A. (2017) Ewles and Simnett’s Promoting health: a practical guide. Edinburgh: Elsevier.

 Townsend, P., Davidson, N. and Whitehead, M. (1992) Inequalities in Health (The Black Report and the Health Divide). 2nd ed. London: Pelican.

Other Learning Resources

 C3 Collaborating for Health –

 The Cochrane library –

 The Institute of Health Equity –

 International Union of Health Promotion and Education –

 Local Authority Health profiles –

 Child and Maternal Health –

 NHS England –

 NHS Health Checks –

 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance –

 The Kings Fund –

 Public Health England (2018) All our Health Framework-

 Public Health England –

 WHO The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) –

 WHO Sustainable development goal –

 WHO European healthy cities network –

 Wanless – the fully engaged scenario – securing out future health – (




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