(a) Distinguish between Differential association theory and Differential identification theory [1 point].

(b) Name two short comings of the social process theories are: (a) and (b) [1 point].

(c) Give an example of societal imposition of positive label [point 1].

(d) Two reasons is it so difficult to impose positive labels on individuals who were previously labeled negatively are: (a) and (ii) [2 points].

(e) Distinguish between external and inner containments [1 point].

(f) According to Reckless, the self becomes more important as a controlling agent as people participate more and more for longer periods of time away from a home base. Two reasons this is so are: (i) and (ii) [2 points].

Chapter 9

(a) List and briefly discuss the three analytical perspectives in Criminology [1.5 points].

(b) Give two reasons why a conflict perspective might not be suitable for today’s American Society? [1.5 points].

(c) Distinguish between Structural and instrumental criminology [1 point].

(d) List one basic disagreement between Left-Realist and Radical criminology [1 point].

(e) What are three implications of adopting the left-Realist approach for crime policy are (i) and (ii) [3 points].


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