For each question you must cite your source in APA format.  Also, indicate the number for each question as you answer, so I will know where one answer ends and the other starts. (It doesn’t have to be an essay with introduction, body and conclusion. Just explain very well what each question is asking)

  1. Describe the differences between the first and second laws of thermodynamics. How, when taken together, they are able to describe the direction of events that take place in the universe.
  2. The equilibrium constant for a particular reaction is 3.

What is the ratio of products to reactants?

Is the reaction favorable or unfavorable?   Tell me how you know.

  1. If the reaction XA + Y –> XY + A has a ΔG of +7.3 kcal/mol, could this reaction be driven in the cell by coupling it to ATP hydrolysis? The ΔG of ATP hydrolysis is -7.4 kcal/mole.   Why or why not?
  2. Read the second column on page 187 of your textbook (attached below) and answer the following question:

What is the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on ATP formation by mitochondria?  Why is this the case?


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