KIN 290–Introduction and Conclusion Examples

Problem #1—What is the best type of exercise for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors?



Over 1200 Americans die from coronary heart disease every day [general introduction] (Reference). Research demonstrates that many types of exercise can help diminish the risk factors associated with heart disease [background information] (Reference). However, while endurance exercise has been well investigated, there has been little research on the efficacy of resistance training as a heart disease preventative [lead-in] (Reference).  Because resistance training is known to increase fat free mass and decrease fat mass, it is expected that resistance training will lead to improvements in the major risk factors for heart disease but that optimal reduction will occur with a combination of endurance and resistance training [problem/thesis statement].



Both resistance and endurance training have been suggested as effective therapies for the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors [summary of possible solutions].  Literature indicates that resistance exercise, while not as broadly efficacious as endurance exercise, nonetheless positively impacts lean body mass and blood pressure (Reference).  In addition, it may be a more tolerable form of exercise for some patients.  Recent, well-controlled research has found the most effective solution may be a combination of both endurance and resistance training [evaluation and determination of best answer] (Reference).  Further research is warranted in order to more clearly define optimal resistance training intensity [identification of gaps in the literature].  Given these findings, health professionals may need to consider broadening their current exercise recommendations to include resistance training, for patients presenting with cardiovascular disease risk factors [implications].


Problem #2—What is the primary contributing factor to performance anxiety in elite athletes?



Performance anxiety affects everyone from public speakers to musicians to elite athletes [general introduction]. Numerous factors have been implicated in the presence of performance anxiety in elite athletes.  The most frequently identified of these factors are arousal and self-efficacy [background information] (Reference).  However, the relative contribution of arousal and self-efficacy to performance anxiety is still unclear [lead-in] (Reference).   While optimal levels of arousal differ from sport to sport, optimal self-efficacy is more consistently defined and is therefore, likely to play a larger role in the development of performance anxiety among elite athletes [problem/thesis statement].



Both arousal and self-efficacy can have an impact on performance anxiety in elite athletes [summary of possible solutions] (Reference).  However, research indicates that among athletes with high self-efficacy, arousal plays a much less prominent role, indicating the self-efficacy is, in fact, the more important of the two factors [evaluation and determination of best answer] (Reference).  Research in high arousal sports, such as football, is still lacking and throughout the literature, there is a general lack of control for the presence of other negative psychological problems such as generalized anxiety and depression, which could also precipitate performance anxiety [identification of gaps in the literature].  Thus, while optimal arousal should not be ignored by coaches and psychologists, a relatively stronger focus on the maintenance of high self-efficacy may be more advantageous to the athlete suffering from performance anxiety [implications].

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